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Beijing Platform for Action. Chapter IV. D. Violence against women – Paragraph 113(b)


Author(s): Scott Douglas Jacobsen

Publication (Outlet/Website): The Good Men Project

Publication Date (yyyy/mm/dd): 2018/12/01

113. The term “violence against women” means any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary deprivation of liberty, whether occurring in public or private life. Accordingly, violence against women encompasses but is not limited to the following:

b. Physical, sexual and psychological violence occurring within the general community, including rape, sexual abuse, sexual harassment and intimidation at work, in educational institutions and elsewhere, trafficking in women and forced prostitution;

Beijing Declaration (1995)

The coercion, intimidation, and violence that women face in their lives remain an important aspect of the abuse of women around the world in several ways, but these “several ways,” in fact, fit into a select set of categorizations.

The main ones listed in the international community are physical, psychological, and sexual violence against women. These forms come alongside a select set of other ones.

Some have not even been recognized throughout history, but now, we can see the increasing relevance of the reduction in the violence against women for the flourishing of communities.

Indeed, if we even posit a glancing examination of the ways in which women’s lives are impacted by gender-based violence, we can simultaneously see the immediate and long-term impacts on the health and wellness of women.

In addition to this, the forms of violence within the family or the home extends into the general community, into the public domains of the society. Recalling, of course, that, at the same time, these are forms of violence experienced around the world by women.

The explicit purpose is known in some circumstances and not in others, but the eventualities in the lives of women, certainly, is foreseeable, as the empirical would appear to be both the modern international and national statistics on the matter in addition to the historical record.

This can be enshrined in some of the deep traditions practiced over centuries and millennia including the religious. The questions of rape, sexual abuse, and so on, retain a particular import in the current Burkean-MeToo moment.

As she noted in a recently released TEDTalk, the MeToo is not a moment but a movement; similar with the solutions to these large-scale social ills, we have the increases in the conversations on the problem but, unfortunately, at times, lack the assertive and solutions-oriented perspective on it.

Following this, the communal and professional space harassment of women may not be completely reduced to anything. However, certainly, we can decrease the levels at which women experience inappropriate commentary or physical contact, or attempts at coerced interaction on the job, for instance.

The changes in the workplaces with specific policies and guidelines on appropriate and inappropriate professional conduct with company-specific codes of conduct can be an important part in this.

In addition, not only working conditions but the coerced into particular ‘labor’ markets of some women, we can see the ways in women are continually taken into prostitution or sex work through coercion, often led by men who exploit their ‘labor.’

Women, in these and other circumstances, remain vulnerable to a wide variety of community-level, violence but also exploitation, as another form of violence against them.

But there are also the ways in which the gendered lens referenced throughout this document can provide the basis for a reframing of not only the problem as violence against women, in particular but also the solutions that may be proposed for this multiple problem.

–(Updated 2018-11-10) One can find similar statements in other documents, conventions, declarations and so on, with the subsequent statements of equality or women’s rights:


In-Sight Publishing by Scott Douglas Jacobsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Based on a work at


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