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Beijing Platform for Action. Paragraph 152


Author(s): Scott Douglas Jacobsen

Publication (Outlet/Website): The Good Men Project

Publication Date (yyyy/mm/dd): 2019/09/21

152. Discrimination in education and training, hiring and remuneration, promotion and horizontal mobility practices, as well as inflexible working conditions, lack of access to productive resources and inadequate sharing of family responsibilities, combined with a lack of or insufficient services such as child care, continue to restrict employment, economic, professional and other opportunities and mobility for women and make their involvement stressful. Moreover, attitudinal obstacles inhibit women’s participation in developing economic policy and in some regions restrict the access of women and girls to education and training for economic management.

Beijing Declaration (1995)

Now, with Paragraph 152, its focus is squarely on the forms of inequality for women, in which the counter can be policy, politics, education, and training. A lot of this will come about through mass education of the public on the rights of women and the political will following from this. Often, ignorance stems in policy stems from an enforced ignorance on the public due to a denial of proper education.

In many countries around the world, including more economically viable countries with more education provided by the state to their workforce, there is an explicit discrepancy between men and women on a number of levels within the demarcations of the aforementioned. On the other hand, in some countries, we have seen a partial reverse in the genders in regards to education and training.

The barriers to the men were not truly as much present, though were much more prominent for the women of the prior generations. In regards to hiring and remuneration, there have been, after 1995 into 2020, conscious efforts to improve the hiring and remuneration of women at par with the men in education and training with the most explicit example of this seen in Iceland.

Iceland has been listed as the most gender equal country, not entirely so – though the most for more than one decade straight, of all nations measured in a ranking provided by the World Economic Forum. In this, the core facet of the examples or success stories is important. In the informal work world, we can see the statements about “inadequate sharing of family responsibilities,” wherein women and men show one another equality in the raising of the next generation in a family unit if they have children. This has’t, historically speaking, been much of the case within the last several thousand years.

I like the nuanced note about the “attitudinal obstacles” for women being able to participate in economic policy without reference to what end of it; institutional, individual men, individual women, etc. The barriers in ‘attitude’ come from the perception of women and the perception of women themselves, which can become expectations – high and low – in traditional domains. We do not have a complete systematic knowledge of human nature and, thus, lack the requisite information as to make absolute statements about the limits or the borders between attitudes and nativist endowments on capacities of biological males and biological females who identify as women.

Nonetheless, those sociological expectations of women undoubtedly would have psychological effects over a longer period of time about what can and cannot be possible. These can inhibit the economic participation of women in a variety of contexts. Something noted as important to be sensitive in a paragraph stipulation then, and arguably now, too – simply less so in some countries, like Iceland.

(Updated 2020-07-07, only use the updated listing, please) Not all nations, organizations, societies, or individuals accept the proposals of the United Nations; one can find similar statements in other documents, conventions, declarations and so on, with the subsequent statements of equality or women’s rights, and the important days and campaigns devoted to the rights of women and girls too:


Strategic Aims

Celebratory Days

Guidelines and Campaigns

Women and Men Women’s Rights Campaigners


In-Sight Publishing by Scott Douglas Jacobsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Based on a work at


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