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Paragraph 165(e) of the Beijing Declaration


Author(s): Scott Douglas Jacobsen

Publication (Outlet/Website): The Good Men Project

Publication Date (yyyy/mm/dd): 2020/12/07

Strategic objective F.1.

Promote women’s economic rights and independence, including access to employment, appropriate working conditions and control over economic resources

Actions to be taken

165. By Governments:

e. Undertake legislation and administrative reforms to give women equal rights with men to economic resources, including access to ownership and control over land and other forms of property, credit, inheritance, natural resources and appropriate new technology;

Beijing Declaration (1995)

Paragraph 165(e), of the Beijing Declaration, deals precisely with the nature of legislation and administration via-a-vis women’s rights. That which should be a truism, which is neither a truism or a reality to most.

In that, the nature of women’s rights brings into questions about human nature, as in that which one views as fundamentally human and, thus, the rights inherent in such a being, a human. Most advanced notions of a human being incorporate an equivalence in women’s and men’s rights.

Wherein, egalitarianism isn’t simply in mind, but it is reified in the body politic. Insofar as this becomes a reality, we come to the contexts of economics. It’s not the only item to consider as a big picture, but it is an important part of the big pictures.

With the economic resources, and in terms of this particular paragraph, we have to deal with the access to ownership, not simply ownership alone. In turn, this “access” would imply a form of breaking down the barriers to the ownership as a first and foremost point.

Following this, there may be some consideration of the ownership qua ownership, as in a hallmark of the control over forms of property, including “land… credit, inheritance, natural resources and appropriate new technology.”

Land is as simple as the house one owns or the house of one’s parents. It is that which tends to gather value outside of a Madoff catastrophic psychopathic criminal incursion on the decency and livelihoods of homeowners.

The control over credit has been a point of some feminist dystopian literature in which women are denied credit, as in ancient days, so as to prevent them from acquiring any finances and some modicum of equality.

In turn, there is a need for a provision of access to some credit and also as reflected in the inheritance. When the living depart, they have the full right to choose who gets what when they die, while, at the same time; there is an importance in considering women’s status regarding inheritance percentages.

Women may not acquire as much as would be deemed helpful. While, similarly, the improvement in women’s status in some areas will produce more equitable consideration of women in domains of inheritance.

While, on the issue of natural resources, think of an older woman who owns a mine, dies, and passes this off to her daughter, this can be an intersection of both inheritance and natural resources. Simply, though, the access to any formulation of natural resources, whether metals, food, or construction materials, important for an independent life or financial investment, or food on the table, are important.

The idea of women’s inherent dependence on men or on community stem from the lack of inheritance for them and the void of ownership, even, in the most extreme example, of themselves. It is this sense of ownership that, once more, ties into the other question on “appropriate new technology.”

Access to a phone, a computer, a washing machine, a dryer, a vacuum, etc., all amount to new technologies for each generation. As such, these represent the kinds of things mentioned in the paragraph, as in any new technology, given sufficient independence of funds, should permit women to go out and own one, of their own, acquired of their own accord.

That’s the heart of this paragraph. The purpose simply and solely to maintain independence of ownership for women, thus instilling the grounds for an economically viable life with or without attachment to another.

(Updated 2020-09-27, only use the updated listing, please) Not all nations, organizations, societies, or individuals accept the proposals of the United Nations; one can find similar statements in other documents, conventions, declarations and so on, with the subsequent statements of equality or women’s rights, and the important days and campaigns devoted to the rights of women and girls too:


Strategic Aims

Celebratory Days

Guidelines and Campaigns

Women and Men Women’s Rights Campaigners


In-Sight Publishing by Scott Douglas Jacobsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Based on a work at


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