Skip to content

Paragraph 165(d) of the Beijing Declaration


Author(s): Scott Douglas Jacobsen

Publication (Outlet/Website): The Good Men Project

Publication Date (yyyy/mm/dd): 2020/11/19

Strategic objective F.1.

Promote women’s economic rights and independence, including access to employment, appropriate working conditions and control over economic resources

Actions to be taken

165. By Governments:

d. Devise mechanisms and take positive action to enable women to gain access to full and equal participation in the formulation of policies and definition of structures through such bodies as ministries of finance and trade, national economic commissions, economic research institutes and other key agencies, as well as through their participation in appropriate international bodies;

Beijing Declaration (1995)

Paragraph 165(d) of the Beijing Declaration deals more with “mechanisms” than anything else. In that, the main focus of the paragraph is having women in the workforce rather than out of it.

So, the paragraph’s authors looked more to mechanisms in the national systems by which to improve a lot of women and, in turn, the increased economic participation of women. Those women who acquire more opportunities.

Those opportunities oriented towards “full and equal participation” in the financial and dynamic sectors of both the economy and the society. With the formulation of policy, the greater equality of women can be better assured.

As the policies set not only the economic directionality of the productive economy, they set the tone for the government and, in consequence, the culture. It is a sense of the culture moving forward from one generation to the next.

A sense of progression in the social and governmental structures towards some idealized aim. In the international system, as seen throughout the Beijing Declaration, this becomes the basis for the provision of a vision of egalitarianism.

It’s not an absolute or an absolutely precise system. It’s not amorphous either. It’s somewhere in between with lines drawn on the areas of operation, e.g., governmental, and domains of discourse, e.g., economics.

Without the aim, there wouldn’t be some final aim and, therefore, the changes would amount to the aimless. If you want to make progress, then there should be a progression towards something. What is progress without a regress? What is a regress without progress?

It’s stagnation, even stagnatory change. Change from one state to the other without a direction in which to progress or regress relative towards. All three without a particular direction in mind do not make sense.

The targeted objectives give the direction required for the compass. These “formulation of policies and definition of structures” provide a baseline. A baseline in considering how best to move the dial of equality further forward.

All three only become relevant in the context of a targeted set of objectives for one to move towards, or not. The emphasis on the policies sets such a framework. The structures would provide a basis to begin to pursue those.

In addition, there are distinct, rather nuanced, areas of emphasis including “ministries of finance and trade, national economic commissions, economic research institutes and other key agencies.” Those parts of the government and private industry.

Whether ministries of finance, those devoted to formulation and projection, and management, of the national economies or the national economic commissions devoted to specific initiatives. Those latter are temporary; whereas, the former runs from one election to another if a democratic state.

The economic research institutes and key agencies regarding economics are important too. Here, we find the generation of ideas by thinktanks and the like. Think of the conservative and libertarian-oriented in the Cato Institute or the American Enterprise Institute, each devoted to thinking of particular solutions and then promulgating these to the public.

In turn, other directions for the spreading of their ideas will be to government officials and others. The only point at which this particular paragraph orients outside of the governmental level stipulated at the outset is the final note on “appropriate international bodies.”

Any governmental action then, and now, will require some international coordination. The communications and informational networks make this an inevitability from the trivial and mundane to the existential and geopolitical.

We remain stuck in the moment of the world of technology built by science. Our rights are filtered through these channels. All policies, infrastructure, legal apparatuses, and the like, will become subject to international law and international human rights law.

The world is global and remains ineluctably so.

(Updated 2020-09-27, only use the updated listing, please) Not all nations, organizations, societies, or individuals accept the proposals of the United Nations; one can find similar statements in other documents, conventions, declarations and so on, with the subsequent statements of equality or women’s rights, and the important days and campaigns devoted to the rights of women and girls too:


Strategic Aims

Celebratory Days

Guidelines and Campaigns

Women and Men Women’s Rights Campaigners


In-Sight Publishing by Scott Douglas Jacobsen is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License. Based on a work at


© Scott Douglas Jacobsen and In-Sight Publishing 2012-Present. Unauthorized use and/or duplication of this material without express and written permission from this site’s author and/or owner is strictly prohibited. Excerpts and links may be used, provided that full and clear credit is given to Scott Douglas Jacobsen and In-Sight Publishing with appropriate and specific direction to the original content. All interviewees and authors co-copyright their material and may disseminate for their independent purposes.

Leave a Comment

Leave a Reply

Fill in your details below or click an icon to log in: Logo

You are commenting using your account. Log Out /  Change )

Twitter picture

You are commenting using your Twitter account. Log Out /  Change )

Facebook photo

You are commenting using your Facebook account. Log Out /  Change )

Connecting to %s

%d bloggers like this: